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HOLOCAUST TESTIMONIES


Name of deponent: Dr. Samuel Mittelman
Birth Date: August 20, 1895
Birth Place: Dabrowa Gornicza
Parents: Mojzesz and Rozalia (maiden name: Siwek)
War-Time Residence: Dabrowa Gornicza
Current Residence (1947): Dabrowa Gornicza, ul. 3-go Maja 7a
Occupation: Doctor


The first "Arbeitseinsatz" in Dabrowa Gornicza took place in the autumn 1940. At that time, the Germans took about 400 young men of the ages from 18 to 25 to the Gross-Mangelsdorf camp. The Aktion took place on the basis of summonses from the Judenrat. At that time, there wasn’t yet a Dulager.

The second, larger Arbeitseinsatz took place the following Spring, probably at the beginning of May. On that morning, German police (Schutz Polizei, called ”SchuPo”) came and took me as hostage. They wanted to take my son, but he wasn’t present. I was taken to the police station at "Huta Bankowa" square on ul Krolowej Jadwigi. There, some 2,000 Jewish men of different ages had been assembled. Lindner arrived and selected people himself. In the building on this square, a German doctor examined those who were directed to him by Lindner.
The Germans took to the DuLager about 500-600 men. From there, these victims were sent to various labor camps. Those who were employed were generally released. In the autumn (probably in November) a large Arbeitseinsatz for women (girls and married women) took place. Women had to report themselves at the square near the Judenrat. The Community Council building was located on ul Szopena. The Germans took away by trams about 400-500 women to the Sosnowiec Dulager.

This Aktion was directed by Lindner and Kuczynski, both of whom were present in Dabrowa Gornicza. In the Dulager, the women were given a medical examination by a Polish doctor, a Mr. Zarzycki. Tens of girls were returned to their homes from the Dulager.

In the spring 1942 (before April), Lindner, Kuczynski and Messner came to Dabrowa and, with police, surrounded Braune's workshop. Some men were taken for medical examination. Dr. Schmiedel and I examined them. At this time, the Germans took about 100 strong men. In April, Lindner called me to report to the Sosnowiec Dienststelle. From there, I and a nurse were deported to the camp at Annaberg. When I arrived, there were about 20 sick persons and about 60 healthy persons in the camp. The Germans immediately took away the healthy persons to the labor camp in Klettendorf.

During the next 3 or 4 days, the Germans brought, in groups, about 400 Jews, sick with spotted fever. All were brought from near the Leningrad Front areas. The prisoners told of being in the so- called "Osteinsatz" (Eastern Front labor) during which they had worked all winter in terrible frost, digging railway track. They said that a number of their group had died on the spot and over dozen had died on return way. They had arrived in terrible condition, being dirty, full of lice, ragged, hungry and ill. In the middle of July, I was sent away back to the Sosnowiec Dulager.

When I returned to Dabrowa Gornicza, I learned that, in May 1942, there had been the first deportation. There had been taken, at that time, several hundred - perhaps 500 to 600 - persons. At the end of July, the Germans had taken small groups of people who had been deported, for various "offences", to Oswiecim (Auschwitz).

On August 12, 1942, there took place so-called "point" in Dabrowa Gornicza. At that time, there were gathered in the square near the Judenrat about 3,500 Jews. The Community Council, by order of the German authorities, required that all Jewish residents appear with their photo identity papers in order to have them stamped. When all the people had gathered, the Germans, Gestapo and "SchuPo", had surrounded the square. On the roofs around the square, were armed "Schupo" . The Gestapo, as well, wore helmets and were armed.

First came Kuczynski who performed the selection. People were selected according to families. He classified the selectees first into three groups: #1, #2, #3. Later, each group the Germans separated from one another. Then Dreier and Peikert arrived wth their followers. Dreier ordered the persons designate group #2 to be taken. All together, the Germans gathered about 1,500 people. and marched them by foot, about three o’clock in the afternoon, to the Bedzin Orphanage. There still remained in Dabrowa about 1,500 to 2,000 Jews.

The districts of the city had been closed since the end of 1941. At first, the Jewish residents were removed from Sobieskiego, 3-go Maja, Dabrowskiego, Sienkiewicza streets and from the city center.

The following districts was closed to Jews at the beginning of 1943. In the closed Jewish district were the streets: Szopena, Miejska, part of Lukaszewskiego, Polna, part of Okrzei. Opened district consisted of streets: Szopena, Lukaszewskiego, Starobedzinska, Hieronimska, Upper Hieronimska, Jaworowa, Mireckiego. During all this time, smaller Arbeitzeinsatz Aktions had taken place. These Aktions were usually carried out by Kuczynski, together with other Germans. It was their task to capture people.

In the last week of July 1943, in just three days, the remaining Jews of Dabrowa, numbering about 1,000 persons had to move to the Srodula ghetto. Some people moved to Bedzin. Displacement was done by wagons or by foot, as each person was able to do. Dabrowa Gornicza remained without Jews.

At the end of 1939, the decree requiring Jews to wear identifying armbands with Stars of David was introduced. At the beginning of 1940, I received a letter from a district-doctor, a German, that I could treat only Jews. In 1941, after the establishment of the Nüemberg Laws into the annexed territories had been put into effect, all Jewish doctors were notified that it was permitted for them to treat only Jews. All letters and prescriptions had to bear the overprint: "für ärztliche Behandlung nur fur Juden berechtigt" (only valid for the medical treatment of Jews) with a Star of David on the left-top side. The doctor’s signature had to be written in blue ink and the prescription in black ink with the Star of David on the left-top side being of a specified diameter. The background must be in yellow with a blue Star of David.

German Police later checked the measurements with ruler to see if the signature was proper according to the rules.





 
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