Name of deponent: Maria Adlerfligel
Birth date: October 18, 1914 in Siewierz
Parents: Jakub and Gizella, maiden name: Beker
Pre-war residence: Bedzin, ul. Modrzejowska 37
Current residence: Katowice, ul. Lompy 18/4
Profession: Nurse, Chorzow Orphanage, ul. Katowicka 21
After liquidation of the Jewish population of Olkusz in
June 1942, I returned to Bedzin. A week later, I began work
in the hospital ("Krankenstube”) in Bedzin, located
at Burgstrasse 41 (Podzamcze 41). Before the war there had
been located there an obstetric house "Linas Hacholim".
During the occupation, the building had been changed into
an old person's home. In May 1942, during the first deportation
Aktion from Bedzin, all the elderly there had been sent
The opening of the dispensary took place on June 25, 1942.
For the opening, "Leiter" Merin Moniek, the manager
of the Centrale’s Department of Health, Dr. Lieberman, local
members of the Judenrat and several doctors attended. A
party was held for the opening and, in honor of the guests,
Dr. Weinzieher - manager of "Krankenstube", Dr.
Lieberman and "Leiter" Merin gave speaches. Doctors
Weinzieher and Lieberman told of the necessity of opening,
in each Jewish center, such a dispensary because of the
impossibility of transporting sick persons to the Jewish
hospital in Sosnowiec and because of the difficult living
conditions of the over-crowded Jewish population. Each told
in their speeches that they hoped we would survive this
I don't remember the content of Merin's speech. The Director
of our dispensary was Dr. Salomen Weinzieher. The head of
the dispensary’s gynecological-obstetric ward was Dr. Jakub
Ferber and the local hospital doctor was the-then student
in his fourth medical course, Samuel Zylberszac. Additionally,
there were 10 nurses, one midwife and myself as senior nurse.
The hospital was provided with 120 beds.
On average, there were about 80-100 patients. The hospital
occupied the entire building. In the front of the building,
on the ground floor, was located the gynecological-obstetric
ward and administration of the hospital. On the second floor
was the internal-medicine ward, two rooms for men and two
rooms for women. On the third floor, in front, were located
storerooms for clothing and food and an apartment for two
In the annex was located an isolation ward and a separate
room for one of the doctor. Two nurses lived in a second
room. Doctors referred people in cases requiring hospital
treatment to our dispensary. The hospital was funded by
the Community. Poor people stayed there at the cost of the
Social Welfare section of the Judenrat. Those who were referred
to the dispensary by the Social Welfare Department were
released from payment in part or entirely, depending on
their financial condition. Rich people paid directly to
the cashier of the hospital. When referring patients to
the hospital, doctors took into consideration not only the
state of the disease, but also the living and family conditions
(for example: single persons).
There was an analytical laboratory within the dispensary.
The laboratory assistant was Jadzia Pfeffer and the manager
of the drugstore and laboratory was Mgr. Krause. The hospital’s
drug section received its items from the Jewish ambulatory
The commissary for the hospital was headed by Jozef Rosenblum
and the office head was Israel Gelbard. In the internal
medicine ward were mostly swelling diseases of unknown origin.
Doctors could find no reason for the ailment because it
wasn’t related to conventional sicknesses such as changing
of the heart or kidney functions. Those patients were treated
with vitamin C and by intravenous injection of glucose.
Results using this treatment were positive, from which it
was concluded that the disease was caused by poor metabolism.
There were also many causes of tuberculosis, which management
of the hospital noted as pneumonia or bronchitis so as to
avoid reporting the case to the "powiat’s" (administrative
district’s) doctor. In very pronounced cases of tuberculosis,
it was necessary to report this to the "Kreisarzt"
On August 12, 1942 during the conclusion at the Gathering
Point, "Ausweis" papers of sick persons were required
so as to be stamped. This time, neither patients nor staff
were taken away. A few days earlier, Dr. Weinzieher had
informed the sick patients that there would take place a
stamping of "Ausweis" papers and he didn't know
what to advise them. Whoever wanted to remain in the hospital
could do so. Those who were afraid could leave the hospital.
In fact, some sick persons discharged themselves from the
hospital and appeared at the Gathering Point while others
remained in the hospital. When the selection at the Gathering
Point was finished, several children were found to be alone
and they were taken back to the hospital. Also, several
children were taken from the Gathering Point to the hospital
to make it easier for some individuals to be released from
the Point. In this manner, about 20 children were gathered
at the hospital. Some of them were recognized by families
and taken home. For the remainder, there was formed by the
Judenrat an infants' nursery on Burgstrasse 39, managed
by Mrs. Grosmann.
The hospital remained in the same building (Burgstrasse
41) until April 1943. In April 1943, it was moved to Kamionka
and located on ul. Krakowska (Robert Koch Strasse). There
it remained until the final liquidation on August 1, 1943.
In September 1942, the first cases of abdominal typhus in
light and hard form occurred. There were also cases of death
due to this disease. Because of typhus, a mother (Szpiro
by name) and her two daughters died. Persons sick with stomach
typhus weren’t, in all cases, taken to the hospital because
there was a fear of placing such cases there. These cases
were listed as people “ill with the flu”. Also persons sick
with typhus and being in the hospital were often kept in
the internal medicine ward with other diagnosed cases so
as not to be reported to the "Kreisarzt". This
was because there was a fear of deportation for the entire
hospital. Other persons sick with typhus, who had to be
placed in an isolation ward, were listed as patients suspected
of being ill with typhus ("typhus verdacht").
Minor surgical operations were performed in our Bedzin hospital.
For this purpose, there came the surgeon from the Jewish
hospital in Sosnowiec, Dr. Fryszer, and later Dr. Stoch
(a Pole). In case of the need for a more serious surgical
operation, the sick person was directed to the Jewish hospital
in Sosnowiec. In such a case, there was needed a confirming
doctor's referral by a "Kreisarzt". On basis of
this, the German police gave a pass for transportation of
the ill person. In the hospital, there was hidden for two
weeks, Dr. Eck from Lwow who had come from the Generale
Gouvernement area and didn't have permission to reside among
us. His child was in the hospital under the pretence of
illness while Dr. Eck was hidden. During the displacement
to the Srodula Ghetto, all sick persons were taken in wagons
to the ghetto. There, wards were organized in the same manner
During the general deportation on Sunday, August 1, 1943
(the first day of the Final Deportation) at 4 p.m., several
trucks with Gestapo persons arrived. Sick persons were taken
to the vehicles and the Gestapo took them away. Hospital
staff members were taken by Gestapo people to the trains
and loaded onto wagons. I was among them. The Gestapo told
us that we could take 10 kg of baggage per person. In the
freight wagon into which we had been loaded, I found sick
persons people from our hospital.
At 2 p.m. on August 1, 1943, a Gestapo person arrived and
told us that sick persons together with staff would be transported
to the hospital in Srodula, but events happened differently.
We were taken to Oswiecim (Auschwitz). In our transport
was also Dr. Weinzieher with his wife and sister-in-law.
On the way to the railway station, Gestapo persons beat
the 76-year old Dr. Weinzieher. Our transport was the fourth
and final transport on that day. There were in our transport
about 2,000 people.
The first transport had left at 7 a.m., the second at 10
and the third at 12 noon. On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday
there still went transports from Zaglebie Dabrowskie to
Oswiecim (Auschwitz). Some girls reported that, on Monday,
there had gone transports from Bedzin. But in the camp no
one was seen from that transport. It was said that someone
from this transport had put up resistance and this was why
the entire transport had gone in toto to the gas chambers.
During the deportation of June 12, 1943, the Germans shot
about 80 persons taken from cellars, apartments and from
among the crops in the fields. Germans came to the hospital
and ordered us to carry, with stretchers, dead bodies to
the mortuary in the hospital. All the corpses were taken
on platforms to the Jewish cemetery under escort of Germans
and there buried in two mass graves, one separately for
men and one for women.