Name of deponent: Rosa Felczer
Birth date: October 30, 1924
Birth place: Sosnowiec
Parents: Maks and Sara (maiden name Weiss) Felczer
Present Residence: ul. Katowicka 21, Chorzow
Occupation: Nurse, in Orphanage, ul. Katowicka 21, Chorzow
At the beginning of 1942, the Department of Health, located
in the Centrale Judenrat in Sosnowiec, assigned me to Czarne
Morze Czarne Morze is a village located two kilometers from
the railway station in Kazimierz.
In Czarne Morze, there lived in approximately a dozen stone
houses about 600 Jews displaced from Kazimierz, Germany
and some poor persons from Strzemieszyce. Previously, Polish
people had lived in the village, but who were moved into
After the exchange of populations, there remained in the
village a single Polish family, living in a separate house.
In Czarne Morze there was a department of the Strzemieszyce
Judenrat. The head of the Judenrate in Czarne Morze was
Dawid Schmidt, representing the Centrale Judenrat in Sosnowiec.
He lived in Sosnowiec and from there subordinated to himself
Jewish population of the villages of Czarne Morze, Dandowka
Before Schmidt, this position had been held by Romek Merin
- nephew of Moniek Merin - who was at the same time head
of the Judenrat Zabkowice. We received rations of food from
Strzemieszyce. There were also 2 "Ordner" (policemen)
who were subordinated to Strzemieszyce. The Judenrat had
a kitchen for poor people which served several dozen (50-60)
dinners daily. Dinners were free of charge. The Judenrat
also provided a kindergarten for children, which was located
in the Judenrat building, occuping two rooms. The kindergarten
served about 40 children from 3 to 12 years old.
The kindergarten was organized on order of the Sosnowiec
Centrale. In the kindergarten, the children were given free
breakfast (bread with jam and coffee) and lunch. The children
were in the kindergarten from 8 a.m. until 3 p.m.
When I came to Czarne Morze, I organized an out-patients'
clinic in the Judenrat. At first, there was no doctor, but
later a doctor served two times weekly. The doctor was a
Jewish lady from Sosnowiec sent by the Department of Health
of the Centrale.
Men and young women went daily to work in Strzemieszyce.
They worked in the local mine, in the zinc-works and in
the carpenter's shop. In Czarne Morze, there was a Jewish
bakery and grocery store where people received goods for
coupons from a division of the Grossverteilungstelle.
One night in April 1942, several "Ordners" came
to our town from Sosnowiec and in the morning made a roundup
for Arbeitseinsatz. However, no one was taken because the
men had hidden in a nearby forest. The Ordners caught only
one 10-year old boy whom they took to Sosnowiec.
In May 1942, at the same time as took place in Sosnowiec,
there was a deportation. At 7 o'clock in the morning, five
Jewish policemen came by vehicle from Olkusz together with
a representative of the Olkusz Judenrat, a Mr. Czarnecki.
The Ordners gave each Jewish family a list with specification
of items which the families could take with them. The came
by vehicle Ordners informed the populace that all Jews would
be resettled to Strzemieszyce.
I was ordered to remain so as to guard the property of the
Judenrat. Each person was allowed to take three changes
of underwear, certain items of clothing as well as food.
The total taken could not exceed 10 kg. Everyone had to
appear by 10 in the morning near the Judenrat office for
registration. Everyone reported for the registration. The
person who registered us was a representative from Olkusz.
After registration, the Ordners set all the people into
columns and led the march by foot on the road to Strzemieszyce.
By 11 o'clock, the entire Jewish population had been removed.
Only I remained there. When the column began to march, Jews
began to escape across the fields. Men, women and children
escaped. The Ordners couldn’t bring the situation under
control. Mr. Czarnecki sent an Ordner to Kazimierz to take
from there "Schupos" (German armed police).
Immediately, there arrived over a dozen "Schupos"
with 4 dogs. The "Schupos" set their dogs upon
the Jews and beat Jews. They shot as a deterrent and in
this manner completed the column’s march.
The Ordners helped the "Schupos" in the hunting
of Jews. The "Schupos" beat Jews bloodily and,
with assistance of the Ordners, drove everyone to Strzemieszyce.
About 50 persons escaped and weren’t caught. Among the escapees
were my sister, her husband and children. Just after the
column left, I packed my valise and went to railway station
to go to Sosnowiec. After I had I arrived in Sosnowiec,
just an hour later, an Ordner came to me and demanded I
return immediately under threat of sending me together with
others to Auschwitz..
The Centrale had been informed by Mr. Czarnecki of my escape.
The following day I went to Strzemieszyce. In Strzemieszyce,
a member of the Judenrat told me that, after assembling
the Jewish people from Czarne Morze, they had all been held
in a school building near the Judenrat. There, the Germans
carried out a selection and left in Strzemieszyce only the
young people who were working.
The remainder, together with a group of older persons and
invalids from Strzemieszyce, were taken by the Schupos and
assisted by Jewish Ordners, on the following Sunday morning
at 10 o'clock to Dabrowa Gornicza. Handicapped people were
taken on wagons. Some old people were afraid to sit on the
wagons because they thought that they would be the first
to go for extermination.
The Judenrat board ordered me to go to Dabrowa Gornicza
because there a nurse was needed there. The transport of
Jews from Strzemieszyce was put into the synagogue where
a part of the Jewish population of Dabrowa Gornicza destined
for deportation had already been gathered. Everyone assigned
to deportation was held in the synagogue and an adjacent
building of the Judenrat. The gathered persons were guarded
by German police and Jewish Ordners . I acted there as a
nurse. This transport waited three days for departure. During
the entire time Jews couldn’t leave the closed two buildings
(synagogue and the Judenrat building). Physiological needs
were performed on the spot since it wasn’t permitted to
leave the building. Jews brought buckets (of waste) out
of the buildings under guard of Ordners.
The night before the transport left, several Gestapo persons,
with assistance of Ordners, performed a roundup among the
Jewish population so as to complete the transport’s assigned
quota of victims. During the entire period the Judenrat
supplied food for the guarded Jews (dinners, bread, coffee).
On Tuesday noon, the Gestapo and Ordners formed the assembled
Jews into a column and marched them to the railway station.
Sick persons numbering about 50 were brought in vehicles
by order of the Gestapo. All the people were loaded by Germans
onto railcars and taken to Oswiecim (Auschwitz). During
the deportation in Dabrowa Gornicza, there were present
representatives of the Centrale including Moniek Merin,
Frania Czarna, Dr. Lieberman and others. I don't remember
all the names.
There were also present representatives of the Strzemieszyce
Judenrat such as president Flaschenberg, Laskier and others.
A month after this deportation, I was given a job in the
Jewish Hospital in Sosnowiec.