Name of deponent: Meryn family of Bedzin
When Rywka entered Gís apartment, he pretended to be asleep
and unable to recognize her. Her coming to him made a great
impression on him since he didnít expect this. He thought
we would be afraid to come to him. When Rywka asked for
our money, Mr. G. answered that the police had taken everything
from him. He said that, thanks only to the intervention
of his factory manager, had it been possible to have him
released from custody the following day.
Our sister pretended to believe him and as proof of her
belief in him, she suggested a further sale of currency
since German money was necessary for us in our move to Grodziec.
But G. said he no longer wanted to do business with us because
he was under observation by the police. He understood that
we at this time wouldnít yield our business of trading,
but from that time on we feared that G. would turn us over
to the police.
During that same time, there occurred another event: on
that day, October 6, 1943, about 3 o'clock in the afternoon
we heard youths from the Hitler Jugend enter the ramshackle
house where we lived. They passed close to our apartment
which was closed and without door handles. They went into
the attic and on returning began to try our door. They succeeded
in opening it and entered the kitchen.
We tried to prevent their entry into our room. We all stood
by our door and held it so that they couldnít enter. They
perhaps heard some of our movements or a sigh. They took
fright and ran away. After that, they looked from the yard
at our windows because they were interested to learn who
was in the apartment. They even threw stones at our window.
After several minutes they left, but soon returned with
other people. They came immediately up the stairs to our
apartment. They found a door handle and began to pound the
door, shouting: "Juden heraus!"
We understood now that they knew what was up. Our neighbor,
Mrs. Michalska, had. noticed them entering our ramshackle
house. She ran to her husband Michalski and told him about
all that was happening. Michalski ran up the stairs quite
out of breath and began to drive the boys away with a broom.
The boys retreated, shouting: "Hier sind Juden!" To this,
Mrs. Michalska replied "Heraus, hier sind keine Juden".
Now we feared that these Hitler Jugend would go to the police.
We decided to escape to the attic of our house on ul Zawale
14. We put our belongings in a nearby closet, dressed in
winter clothing and in this fashion went into the street.
Because my sister wore a winter-coat a Polish boy began
to observe her and followed behind her step by step.
Our sister Estera tried to mislead him going to other doors
from which one can also enter our house. When he lost sight
of her, the boy began to look around and saw Mojzesz who
also was dressed in a winter overcoat.
The boy assumed that a person so dressed must be a Jewish
refugee. He began again to follow our brother, but Mojzesz
wasnít afraid of him since he knew all the alleys of our
city and so he, too, lost him. This had taken, however,
a very long time because the boy followed through every
twist and turn. It was only by chance that Mojzesz was able
to lose the boy. The worst of this episode was that we others
were made terribly nervous because of the long absence of
We settled ourselves in the attic, butt we werenít able
to remain there because there were no conditions for long-term
dwelling. In the evening brother Aron with sister Rywka
planned to go by foot to Strzemieszyce, which is about 17
km distant from Bedzin. There, we had good Polish friends.
However, because there were just too many German gendarmes
about, those friends didnít even want to put us up for an
evening. We managed to reach the rail station so as to return
in this fashion to Bedzin. The train was an hour late causing
us to walk around the station, but fortunately the time
passed safely. We arrived about 11.30 o'clock at night back
The next day in our attic was quite sad for us because we
hadnít decided anything. Moreover, Polish boys in these
houses went around to empty apartments. On the third day
of our stay in the attic, the beginning of our doomsday
6 October1943, some Polish boys came to our area to play.
One bragged to his friends of his agility and ability saying
that he could get up to an attic and be able to enter one
and to leave from a second. This had to be a kind of magic
trick. In this event, he had to enter first our attic. We
decided that if he really attempted to climb, we would frighten
him and he would certainly run away. Our sister soon noticed
that he had begun to ascend. She mewed as a cat.
The youngster then shouted: "Listen, here in the attic are
Jews. Let's go to the police".
Then we were frightened. We dressed quickly and succeeded
again in reaching Michalska. We went through a field to
get there. Leading us was brother Lejzor who went directly
to Michalskaís apartment since there was no alternative.
Lajzor entered her apartment and began to weep so that Michalska
allowed him into the room. Then Estera, Rywka and Mojzesz
They werenít able to go in, however, because someone, a
girl this time, recognized the trio as Jews. Somehow, though,
they were finally able to get past the door. But once again,
on the stairs, they met two Poles, neighbors of Michalska.
One of them recognized our family. At the same moment, the
young girl who had been watching the trio, came in and asked
the neighbor if she hadnít noticed that some Jews just enter.
The neighbor replied that they must have gone somewhere
else. We werenít able to enter however, because these neighbors
remained to talk. Suddenly our brothers Aron and Izrael
entered. Michalska gave them a signal from afar so that
they went into the nearest apartment.
The doors inside the apartment were locked so they didnít
know where the rest were. After some time they returned
to us, but without brother Lejzor. Only in the evening did
we learn that he was at Michalska. During Michalskaís absence,
Lejzor had come to the room where Dunska and her children
were hidden. He asked her to put in a good word for us should
Michalska refuse to hide us. Still hiding in this room were
two Jewesses and a child, all from Sosnowiec.
Michalska had forbidden them to let Lejzor into the room,
but Dunska because she was our close friend from the Srodula
bunker, didnít take heed of this order and admitted him.
The women and child hid behind the wardrobe and Lejzor didnít
see them. In the evening, Lejzor came to us.
The following day, Michalska didnít visit us for the entire
day. Only in the evening, the Jewesses with her induced
her so that she brought us food consisting of bread and
a pail of water She did light the stove again. In this,
her neighbor who already knew of our presence, helped Michalska.
Michalska had promised the woman that we would pay her some
money. We agreed to this promise.
On the 11th of October, about 4.30 in the morning, we heard
knocking. It proved to be Michalska who had brought from
among her own tenants the old woman Herszkowicz. Later,
one after another, all her tenants came to our hiding place
so there was now in our apartment 12 persons. Michalska
explained us why she had removed from her own apartment
these Jewesses. Namely, her married daughter had learned
that her mother kept Jews. The Daughter threatened to denounce
her to the police.
Now, out of necessity, we all lived in the one room. Each
family cooked on the single kitchen since the stove was
very small. This was dangerous because we were obliged to
cook only at daybreak so that later in the day there would
be no smoke visible. In the beginning, when we used the
stove a long time, we were afraid. Then our sister got the
idea to overheat a little coal at night. This glowing-hot
coal was extinguished with water so that the gases in the
coal escaped. Then it was possible to burn it as coke. A
test succeeded so that now it was possible to cook during
the day. Only the stoveís burning needed to be done before
Now the household got along better together. On the 17th
of December the Herszkowicz womanís son and daughter Hamburger,
the mother of little Natek arrived. Until now, they had
been hidden in Silesia, but because there was threat of
exposure, they came to their mother. There was now with
us 14 persons. In a small apartment, this condition was
more and more dangerous. The newcomers quarreled with their
own mother, often in loud screams. In this fashion, we survived
to 23rd of January.1944. On that day there occurred again
an unpleasant ordeal. Namely the German policeman, the infamous
Micke, came to Michalska and made an inspection of her apartment,
finding there a great deal of food which she prepared for
us that evening. He also found the underwear which Michalskaís
son had removed from the ghetto.
He thereupon arrested the entire family. When Michalska
didn't come to us either in the evening or at daybreak,
we understood that something serious had happened. Herszlewic
had brought the news to us. She had learned about it from
We were afraid that Michalska might reveal everything. So
the men among us went to hide in the attic at Zawale 14
while the women remained here. Now there was a lack of water
because there was no one who could bring it. After supper
Rywka and Estera went to look for a source of water.
We went to a former friend named Walerian Karcz. He was
a very decent Polish man of strong character. When we entered
his apartment he was very glad to see us. Because he was
living with his family in a single room, we werenít able
to hide at his place but we asked him to find a shelter
for us at one of his friends. Karcz promised to do this
for us. We arranged to met the following day near a tram-stop.
He came with a friend named Michal Wlodaszczyk and promised
to look for a bigger apartment with cellar where he could
hide us. He would give us a definite answer the next day.
When he didnít appear the following day we decided to go
to his apartment. However, he wasnít there so we left a
note asking inquiring him where apartments with cellars
could be found which were for rent. We asked him to come
to ul Zawale on Sunday at 6 p.m. He appeared punctually
at the specified time. He had nothing to offer us, but asked
us to come the following week for an answer.
In the apartment in which we hid, there began to be a lack
of water and food because there was no one who would bring
it to us. Herszkowicz managed to bring us bread. Her son
had gotten German ration cards and could buy bread. However,
he didnít have whole cards, only sections of the cards for
bread. He lied as only he could. He acted as though he were
the runner for a group of friends who bought the bread for
his group. Since he spoke German very well, the merchants
didnít refuse him. Karcz, too, brought us bread. It was
a problem because it was necessary to feed 14 persons.
On the fourth day, Michalskaís younger son and a friend
of the older boy were released. The little boy came to us
and told us everything. We calmed down because, according
to the boyís story concerning the policeís evidence, no
one had mentioned anything about us. However, in the evening,
the older son came and said we must leave the apartment.
He did agree that we could stay until the time we found
a new place.
We remained there until the 17th of March. We prepared a
ladder which was necessary to exit our attic. On the 17th
of March, Izrael and Mojzesz carried the ladder to our attic.
Earlier, we had a premonition that something would happen.
When our brothers returned from the attic, they saw that
our building was lit with flashlights. The brothers stood
to a side and waited. For the moment we didnít know who
had surrounded us. We heard only as they broke down all
the doors though they knocked on ours and when the door
wasnít opened, they broke it down.
We overheard, one of them speak in Polish and the second
spoke German. We understood that they werenít the Germans
authorities, but merely a band of robbers who wanted to
steal. We had to leave the apartment immediately. During
this time, robbers surprised us from behind, beat us, took
our backpacks and clothes as well as all our reserves of
food. Only the backpack of Lejzor remained thanks to the
brothers who stood in the yard and fought courageous with
the Aryans. They frightened the robbers away and the thieves
escaped. We were safe and managed one by one to come to
The next day when it was clear we lacked bread and there
wasnít any warm food to be had, Rywka and Izrael went down
into the city with the aim of making contact with a certain
German woman named Elsner whose husband was Jewish. Izrael
knew Elsnerís 14 year-old son quite well. In her apartment
we met her sub-tenant, a German woman named Weissmann. This
second woman was also married to a Jewish man, but her husband
had been deported. We were hospitably by them. The young
boy went to the city and bought food for us. The women offered
us a little of their own food, too, for which they didnít
want to be paid. Izrael proposed repaying them by suggesting
that they could sell currency for us and in this manner
earn a profit. They agreed do to this.
The following day our sisters went to them with currency
to be sold. After several days Izrael went to stay with
them. In the meantime, we tried to get in contact with Wlodarczyk.
He took Rywka and Mojzesz, who were recovering from sicknesses
into his own apartment during a particularly cold period.
We, not wanting to expose the German women to unnecessary
danger, thanked them for their kindness. Sister Rywka provided
us in food. However, after two weeks they left W3odarczyk
because for him it was dangerous to allow Jews t be hidden
in his one-room apartment. However, he introduced us to
a woman of his family who lived nearby. She now bought food
In this attic, we remained until the 17th of April 1944.
Again with the coming of spring, young boys started to walk
on roofs and to play "fire guard". We were again subject
to being accidentally found. It was necessary to find another
attic. On the 15th of April, Mojzesz and Aron went down
during the evening when it was still dark trying to find
another attic I which to hide. We returned with nothing.
When we went down the following day, we saw our roommate
Natek Fryszman. He told us that his mother had been arrested.
He had been taken by some Poles, for a payment of money,
to some friendly Germans. With them he had spent three weeks.
They had brought to him a doctor because he had broken leg.
The doctor, Stach, knew Natek and recognized him. He bandaged
his leg. The Germans didnít want to keep Natek long, so,
on crutches, he managed to reach Michalskaís apartment.
In the same house, there also lived some Jews in the attic.
Probably somebody denounced them because at night there
German police arrived and arrested them. We went into the
city and found a more or less suitable attic. All that day,
we prepared for the move. We were very afraid because some
boys were playing on the nearby roof. In the evening, we
went to the attic of the building at ul Zawale 23. There
were two entries to that attic.
There we remained until the 8th of May. On that day, there
occurred the following event. One boy started to lift a
second boy so that the second could look into the attic.
Suddenly from the side of attic there appeared the head
of this boy. About an hour later, they returned. We were
busy cutting hair and werenít able to move immediately so
that they wouldnít hear a sound. They approached the opening,
made a scaffolding so that they could look into the interior.
We heard the words: "Did you see that?"
They escaped and began to throw stones. Now it wasnít possible
to hide. The boys left some time later. We decided to send
two persons away so that they would take some money to Mrs.
Elsner and thereby might remain with her. After half of
hour, Estera and Lejzor left. The rest of us remained in
Shortly after their departure, a group of boys came. Without
a ladder they couldnít get into our attic, but they saw
some stairs in the next ramshackle house. They all carried
away the stairs which could serve as a ladder. When our
brother saw this, he understood that things are now going
While the boys were busy, he jumped down and came to a pre-arranged
place within our attic. Our first group, Regina and Mojzesz,
had gone to Mrs. Elsner. While en route, they met her young
son to whom they gave the money so that he would hide it
for them. From there, they proceeded to the prearranged
attic which was to serve as a temporary shelter. Lejzor,
Aron and Estera proceeded to the second attic.
We entered our attic, but no one answered us so we went
down to the vacant apartment. We noticed a door with plywood
attached. This aroused our interest. We began to detach
the board when we heard the scream of a child: "Zosia, run
to the police. Thieves are trying to break in."
We noticed that the apartment from which the childís shouts
came was closed. That seemed suspicious to us. We went down
to first story of the ramshackle house because it wasnít
possible to go anywhere else.
Aron went into the city and looked for an attic. He found
one and returned for the rest of us. During that time Izrael
upon returning to our garret noticed the boys and was certain
that the police had arrested his dearest relatives and told
us of his observation.
In the evening Aron came to see our sister when he suddenly
saw two German policemen with two boys from the group which
had earlier frightened us. He remained in the doorway opposite
and watched. He saw the police enter our attic. He feared
that our sister would now appear and hence fall into their
hands. To prevent this, he went to Mrs. Elsner and asked
that her daughter would stand on one approach to our former
garret and he would remain on the second route and await
our sister. Luckily, however, our sister didn't appear because,
in the meanwhile, she had met the brother of a neighbor
and learned from him that our attic was being searched by
the police. Accordingly, she didnít attempt to enter our
former attic. As we stood watching the police, our second
sister approached and we were able to have her go to another
place. We decided that brother Lejzor should go to Michalska
and ask for refuge. After the departure of the police, I
waited another half hour. Later, using signals I found our
Only then did I learn that Izrael was safe. Itís difficult
to imagine how our greeting one another appeared. We decided
that Izrael and Rywka must go to Michalska where Lejzor,
too, had gone. Aron, Mojzesz and I would go to Mrs. Elsner
to retrieve the money which Rywka had given Elsnerís son
for safe keeping.
Mrs. Elsner invited us in to supper. After supper, I asked
for our hidden money. The son returned it to us, but I considered
from Mojzeszí opinion, that perhaps it would be better if
the funds remained with them. We took only jewels and left
4,000 marks in cash. We returned to our attic, but found
no one there. We didnít know what had happened to those
who hadnít returned. We lay down with heavy hearts and,
because of worry that they werenít here, we werenít able
to to sleep. I was also uneasy about the 4,000 marks which
I had left with Mrs. Elsner.
We remained until morning. We had eaten nothing that entire
day because our sister who had gone to Michalska had taken
the supply of bread with her. In the evening Mojzesz went
to Michalska. He learned that our family was in the attic
where we all met. We were again all together.
In the evening, I went to Mrs. Elsner to retrieve our money.
The door to her apartment was now locked with a padlock.
I waited a long time, but finally went home empty handed.
On the following day the door was again locked. However,
I rang incessantly. Through door the 13 years old daughter
of Mrs. Weissmann answered : "Die Frau Elsner und die Mutti
und Ruti sind in die Partei vorgeladen warenď (Mrs. Elsner
and Mother and Ruthie have been called to the (NSDAP) party.)
When I asked her what's the matter, she answered: "Wir wissen
nicht; wir haben selbst Angst". (We donít know; we ourselves
I then asked the child, if she would throw down from the
balcony the little parcel with money which we had left.
I told the child where the parcel lay, but after searching
she said: "Es liegt schon nicht" (It isnít any longer here).
I said that I would return the following day at 8.30 in
the evening to be certain that Mrs. Elsner would be at home.
Two days later, Mrs. Elsner herself opened her door for
me. She took me to a darkened room and told me that she
couldnít take me farther: "Weil bei der Frau Weissmann eine
Parteigenossin da ist". (Because there is a lady (NSDAP)
member visiting Mrs. Weissmann). We went close to the windows
and spoke. At this point, Mrs. Elsner declared that there
happened some bad luck for her today. In the meantime the
"Parteigenossin" (lady Party member) had departed so that
Mrs. Elsner invited me into the sitting room.
She told me exactly the circumstances by which the money
had been consumed. Her story didnít make much of an impression
on me so that I was very worried. Then Mrs. Weissmann began
helping Mrs. Elsner in telling the story. They two ladies
talked so long that they said too much and it appeared that
the money had been taken by them. They assured me that they
would go to some of their relatives and would repay me at
the rate of 100 marks per month. She gave me, as though
it were as much as she had, 50 marks. I accepted that sum
and arranged that later in the evening I would send our
sister to retrieve our belongings.
On the return walk to our home, I noticed that a round-up
was in process, but fortunately I returned home safe, but
broken hearted. When I told the family that we donít have
any more money, Lejzor burst into tears because he was afraid
that without money he would be killed.
In the morning Rywka went to the Elsner womanís house to
retrieve out things. She had to remain all day at Mrs. Elsnerís,
because she couldnít go out on the street. She returned
in the evening and she told us of the insolent manner the
two ladies wanted to be rid of her.
We considered in what manner we could recover our money
from them. We couldnít forgive this sum because we were
completely without cash and who knew how long the war would
last? To be sure every day we read newspapers, but there
was no information about the channel invasion or any war-related
announcements. We had three days to think about a plan to
recover the money because by Monday we had to go to her
for our money. Izrael and Aron decided that they would go
to her and tell her that they wonít leave her apartment
until she returns our money. We were able to carry out such
a ruse with them because they were afraid of us, too, since
they both were "Halbjudinnen" (half Jewesses).
So we carried out that plan. Mrs. Elsner even greeted us
heartily upon our arrival. When she replied to Izrael that
she would repay 100 marks monthly, he answered that he wouldnít
leave the apartment until she had returned all our money.
He told her she could even go to the police. In that case
we would go together to Auschwitz.
Then the ladies were very much afraid. The daughter of Mrs.
Elsner began to weep and reproach her mother saying that
she (the mother) had started (trouble) with us. Then Izrael
said that he was convinced that mother still had the money.
Mrs. Elsner tried to explain. My brother repeated that he
wouldnít leave here without our money. He took off his jacket
and hung it on a hook to prove to her that he would do as
he said. Then Mrs. Elsner put on her coat and Mrs. Weissmann
did the same. With the words: "Iíll go to those who believe
me" she, Mrs. Weissmann and the children left the apartment.
Brother Izrael wasnít frightened by this. After a half hour,
the ladies returned and Mrs. Elsner declared that she was
helpless in the face of our blackmail. She would have to
sell all that she possessed in order to repay the money.
Izrael was only silent and prepared to remain with them.
When it became dark, Mrs. Weissmann reached into a sideboard
and took out money. In the morning she took a valise with
clothes as though to sell them, but instead she went to
exchange (to replace) this money so that we wouldnít recognize
that she was repaying us with our same banknotes.
Later, at dinner she said that she had only 2,000 marks,
but when Izrael replied that he would wait in their apartment
for a couple more days, the ladies left once again to the
city and brought back 3,950 marks. Izrael was satisfied
with this and left. We couldnít believe that he had been
successful in his ruse.
We remained longer in the attic of Michalís friends and,
on the evening of 5 June 1944, we heard that there will
be an invasion (of France). We found ourselves in a critical
situation because our housekeeper, without telling us, had
moved and we remained without assistance.
On the 6th of June, Michal came to our attic and promised
that he would never leave, that against his will his wife
had rented for herself another apartment without a cellar.
However, Izrael asked to see the apartment and Michal took
us to his cellar. After negotiating an agreement with his
second friend, we agreed on the following plan: First Izrael
and Rywka would go there. We wanted to talk to another friend,
Bronka. Bronka, after discussions, agreed to take us in
but not very soon. Finally, she sent by Michal a message
that that we could come. Michal also brought us a newspaper
with the news that the invasion had begun. This was a good
omen for our survival. Now, we hoped, we could await an
early liberation. Michal was very good to us. In the day,
we couldnít go with him, so we went in the evening.
We wanted very much that the friend of Michal, with whom
Michal was angry, wouldnít assume that Michal had taken
us in. Finally, after many unpleasantries en route, we came
to Michal. The first night we were accommodated in a bunker
where we could only sit. We lived in this hiding place until
the 27th of January 1945; that is, until the of entry of
Russian soldiers. The cell was 90 cm (3 ft.) wide, 2 meters
40 cm (8 ft) long, 1 meter 50 cm (6ft) high. There were
6 persons in this hiding place. It was located in a field.
Our life was subject to forfeit at any moment.
We were enormously nervous. Brother coughed frequently so
that we were afraid someone would hear him. On 24 June we
had an occurrence when the owner of a house, who in a second
bunker produced vodka, discovered us. When the woman who
brought us food, left in the morning, this person noticed
that she carried a pot within the pail. He assumed that
in the dugout, there some one was there. He went to the
entrance of our bunker and looked in through a crack to
the inside. He saw Mojzesz and left.
We were afraid that he would tell this to some of his friends
and then we would be lost. When Bronka visited us in the
evening, we tactfully asked her if any one in the vicinity
had seen us. She answered that the person we had observed
had questioned her as to who was the guest wearing a blue
jacket with white stripes he had seen yesterday in the dugout.
We decided to go to him and to talk so that he wouldnít
discuss us with any one. But we soon changed this decision,
deciding instead to wait for Michal. He was due to return
soon from work. We would ask him to do this for us. Luck
was with us because Bronka came to us again to deliver some
needed coal. Normally, she never came to us so often. We
asked her to have Michal come to us on a very important
When Michal came, we told him everything. We gave him advice
as to how to settle the matter. We recommended that he should
appeal to the person's conscience, that he shouldnít admit
that we are Jews, but are partisans who have escaped from
the General Gouvernement area. He should say that there
are only two persons hidden there.
Most importantly, he should tell him: "Youíve produced vodka
for a long time and I have seen nothing because I donít
want to see anything. Then, I ask you to copy me so that
you, too, can say you see no one with me because you donít
want to see anything". As we had advised, so Michal handled
this. He repeated to us later the content of his conversation
with the owner. We were now a little bit calmed.
Mice and bugs were a terrible calamity for us in this cell.
To wash our underwear, we had to use cold water with little
soap so that our underwear was dirty and not washed clean.
This is also why lice and fleas began to multiply. It was
caused also by this fact that during nine months we hadnít
changed clothing. We slept on towels and everywhere it was
very dirty. Also in this cell we had 40 loaves of bread,
15 kg. cereal and a bushel of potatoes. Frogs came by openings
in the walls to our cell. The problem with mice began after
the harvest. Mice began to eat our supply and continually
jumped at us. At night, mice came down to us through holes
in the ceiling. The roof was devastated and when it rained,
there was a flood in the cell.
At this time there was difficulty in exchanging money. We
decided to turn to Mr. Szulc from Bedzin. Rywka went to
him in the evening with the proposal whether he would buy
gold coins. He wasnít able to buy, but he accepted the agency
to sell them. We gave him a low enough price. He, however,
replied that Rywka clearly had made a mistake because the
price was higher. He asked her to come the next day. At
a prearranged time, handed her money and advised her not
exchange much because perhaps soon there would be the end
of the war.
The Soviet Army was then at the Vistula River. Accordingly,
it was necessary to hope for the best and keep up our courage.
This was for us good cheer, because our capital was already
captured. Unfortunately as yet there wasnít an end to the
war because the Soviet Army remained near Warsaw and didnít
Each month Rywka gave Mr. Scholz gold coins to exchange
and he altruistically exchanged them for her. But once,
when Rywka went to him to exchange coins for currency his
wife said desperately that her husband had been arrested
by the Germans. She contacted Mr. Marian Stanek and instructed
him in our arrangement so that he took care of us. Mr. Stanek
agreed to this. He took coins and exchanged them for her.
In January, we were still able to buy a little supply of
food. We learned of the political situation and that the
winter-offensive had begun. In the newspapers we read about
bridges being blown up, but the paper didnít give the information
as to where this occurred.
On the 14th of January we got a newspaper from Michal from
which we learned that the Russian winter offensive had begun.
We began to limit our eating because already it wasnít possible
to get bread. Every day we examined the newspapers. On the
day the time the Russians occupied Czestochowa, we received
our last newspaper. This was for us evidence that the end
of German control of our area was close.
Then there was a report that Germans, in their retreat would
take Poles to Germany. We were in horrible fear. On the
morning of 27 January we heard shots and screams. We were
very afraid. At that time, three Germans hid in some houses
and from there shot at the Russian troops.
After a time, our brother noticed people running with joy
to the shed from which there appeared soldiers of the Russian
Army. We began to weep with joy. It was then 6.30 in the
morning we could go out just about 12 noon.
We carried out from our hiding place 15 loaves of bread,
20 kg of rye cereal and potatoes. With great joy and full
satisfaction that we had survived, we returned liberated
to the town.